Fungal diseases are often difficult to diagnose and manage because they tend to be manifest like any other bacterial sepsis (candidemia / disseminated Aspergillus infection /Mucorales) or they are chronic, hard to diagnose, and difficult to eradicate with antifungal drugs. Also most of the labs are not well equipped with diagnostic tools to diagnose them early.
In the near horizon, the incidence of fungal infections is likely to surge, as there will be more hosts with impaired immunity and drug resistance will inevitably increase after selection by antifungal drug use. Disseminated fungal infections are common in immunocompromised hosts such as HIV, critically ill patient on mechanical ventilator, CKD, organ transplant recipients (SOT/BMT) etc.
The treatment for most of the invasive fungal diseases remains unsatisfactory given their high morbidity and mortality despite the best available antifungal treatment. For example, fungal diseases such as aspergillosis and cryptococcosis carry very high mortality even when treated with appropriate antifungals because of often underlying impaired immunity. New pathogenic fungi known as Candida auris, are commonly known to cause outbreaks in intensive care units across the world and manifest a high degree of resistance to existing antifungal therapy.
Also fungal infections of the skin are often resistant to antifungals and persist for long durations. Most of the human skin diseases are associated with two types of fungi, the dermatophytes and Malassezia. Although these skin-related problems are not generally life threatening, they are among the most common diseases in clinical practice. Also there are certain disseminated fungal infections can also present with skin maifestations like cutaneous cryptococcosis, candidiasis, histoplasmosis or mucor in an immunocompromised host.