Infections of the lung are commonly seen with wide range of bugs. Most of them are usually viral, bacterial or fungal in origin. Rarely parasitic infections of the lung are noticed in clinical practice and requires very high index of suspicion for early clinical diagnosis and relevant investigations to diagnose them. Pneumonia is an infection of the lung mainly caused by bacteria and affecting mainly the alveoli of the lungs. There are many etiological agents responsible for pneumonia such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or mycobacterium. In most of the cases pneumonia is well treatable, but in certain conditions like immunocompromised patients such as diabetes, post-transplant recipients or chronic lung illnesses (Post tuberculosis sequelae or COPD) most of the infections are caused by drug resistant bacteria, non tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) or invasive fungi.
Health care associated pneumonia (HAP) is a common nosocomial bacterial infection and is most prevalent in medical and surgical intensive care units. As such, HAP adds significant morbidity as well as mortality to the patients admitted in intensive care as well extra financial burden for the patients. Also HAP is responsible for prolonging the stay in the hospital.
Lung infections usually presents with symptoms of fever, productive cough with or without blood in sputum. Also there can be history of shortness of breath or chest pain. Most of the infections are easily treatable by appropriate antimicrobial therapy and chest rehabilitation. Also in chronic diseases use of influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations play a key role in preventing lung infections.