Tropical fevers are defined as infections that are predominantly seen in or are unique to tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Some of these infections occur throughout the year and some specifically in rainy and post-rainy season. There is deep apprehension about high prevalence and morbidity and mortality caused by these tropical infections, and also overlapping clinical presentations, making them difficult to diagnose correctly and need for early effective treatment. Tropical infections are responsible for 20-30% of ICU admissions in tropical countries. And if the diagnosed early and prompt treatment given, most of the infections have good outcome.
Commonly encountered infections in Indian scenario are dengue, rickettsial infections or scrub typhus, malaria, typhoid, and leptospira infections and also viral infections like influenza. There are also certain other infections which are commonly seen in certain parts of India such as Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar or filariasis.
Other preventable tropical infection commonly seen in Indian scenario is Rabies, a viral disease transmitted to humans through the bites of infected dogs that is invariably fatal once symptoms develop.